Ostafyevo Estate known as Russian Parnassus belonged to Princes Vyazemsky, later to Counts Sheremetev. In 1792, Andrey Ivanovich Vyazemsky (1754–1807) bought the estate and in 1801, he started to build a new house there. Ostafyevo soon became one of the centres of Russian spiritual life. It was there that Nikolay Karamzin wrote his History of the Russian State.

After Andrey Vyazemsky’s death (1807) it belonged to his son, the poet Pyotr Vyazemsky (1792–1878) who finished the house. Many Russian literary figures came to see him, including Pushkin, Gogol, Zhukovsky, Batyushkov and Griboyedov.

The next owner of the estate was his son Pavel Vyazemsky, senator and chamberlain at the Russian court. He took possession of Ostafyevo in 1861. He was a passionate collector and he kept his collections of drawings, graphic and applied art in the estate. He changed the interior of the house, creating memorial rooms dedicated to Alexander Pushkin, Nikolay Karamzin and his father, Pyotr Vyazemsky. In 1888, Pavel Vyazemsky died, and his son Pyotr (1854–1931) mortgaged the estate and in 1898 sold it to his brother-in-law Count Sergey Dmitriyevich Sheremetev (1844–1918). The Count was a man of letters and arts and he understood the historical importance of the estate very well. From 1898 to 1918 he worked to create a unique museum in Ostafyevo. The façades and interiors were restored. In 1911–1914 monuments to Nikolay Karamzin, Pyotr Vyazemsky, Pavel Vyazemsky, Vasili Zhukovsky and Alexander Pushkin were installed in the estate. In 1903 he transferred the estate to his son Pavel Sheremetev who became after the Revolution the first director of Ostafyevo Museum. Until the end of 1929, Pavel Sheremetev lived in the estate and made an inventory of the museum. In 1930, the museum was closed. The house was transformed into a health resort, all the interiors were changed, and collections were distributed between different museums of USSR. In 1989, Ostafyevo Estate Museum was restored and reopened.